There are many ways to include this information in your text. Some examples are below:
Notice that parentheses are used to indicate the parts of an in-text citation not included in prose. Also notice that the parts of the parenthetical citation (author, year, page) are separated with commas. Lastly, notice that “p.” is used for a citation on one page and “pp.” is used for a citation that spans multiple pages.
The punctuation in your own writing follows the parenthetical citation. This is the case even when the citation is for a block quote (a long, indented quote, not surrounded by quotation marks).
Cite both authors throughout the work. Citations inside parentheses use the ampersand (&). Citations outside parentheses, use "and.”
According to the study, 25% of people prefer cats over dogs (Smith & Brown, 2004).
Smith and Brown (2004) surveyed this phenomenon.
Cite all of them the first time you refer to the work, but in subsequent references follow the last name of the first author by et al. (with a period after "al").
A recent survey (Smith, Brown, & Black, 2005) showed.... [first reference]
Smith et al. (2005) showed [second reference]
Consistently cite only the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (with a period after "al").
Give the communicator's initials and last tmae, and as precise a date as possible. Personal communications are not included in reference lists.
(R. J. Smith, personal communication, March 3, 2010)
When the citation is for works by the same author, order them by publication date without repeating the author's name.
Recent surveys (Smith, 2007, 2009)....
When the citations are to works by different authors, order them alphabetically by surname, separating them with semicolons.
Several surveys (Brown, 1990; Griggs, 1998; Pepper, 1999)….
Instead of a last name use the first few words of the entry for that work in the reference list. Put quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
Use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the coinciding lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Jensen, D. (2009a). A work to be admired. New York, NY: ABC Publishing.
Jensen, D. (2009b). More works to be admired. New York, NY: ABC Publishing.
According to a Harvard study (Jensen, 2009a),… while a similar study (Jensen, 2009b) suggests…
Substitute (n.d.) for the date.
Brown’s study (n.d) showed that kittens are visually pleasing…
When providing a quotation from an electronic source that does not provide page numbers, use paragraph number, if available, preceded by para. If there are no paragraph numbers, use the section heading and the number of the paragraph within that section.
(Smith, 2010, para. 5)
(Brown, 2009, Introduction section, para. 1)
It is best practice to locate and cite the original source of a quotation. If this is not possible, name the original source in your signal phrase, but cite the secondary source in the reference list and as an in-text citation.
Anderson claimed, “Cats are better pets than dogs” (as cited in Johnson, 2008, p. 400).
For major classical works, such as ancient Greek and Roman works and the Bible, identify the version you used and specify the part you are citing according to the standard way of referring to it—book, chapter, verse, line, or canto.
The poem alludes to 1 Genesis 1:1 (King James Version)…