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Albert S. Cook Library

ASA Style

Learn to cite sources in American Sociological Association (ASA) style.

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In this guide

The examples below are based on the American Sociological Association Style Guide. Your professor is the the final authority for the bibliographic form, including spacing of the references used in your paper.

For examples of how to list government documents, abstracts, unpublished papers, and translations in a reference list, see the American Sociological Association Style Guide.

Style Guide

In-text Citations

In-text citations are also sometimes called "Embedded Citations" or "Parenthetical Citations." You can cite within the text of your paper in several ways including within a sentence or at the end of a sentence.  For a direct quote, include page number. All works cited must appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.


Baker (2003) found that education was even more important than health care.

“Results from early research indicated that a stable government fosters democratization” (Smith, Fowler, and Evans 2003:26).


Use notes to explain or expand text or to clarify a table. Designate notes with sequential numbers and list them in an endnotes section at the end of the body of the text, preceding the reference list. For examples, see ASA Style Guide.