Audiovisual media is defined by the APA as media that may have both visual and audio components, audio components only or visual components only. The basic format for each is the same, although the pattern is based on whether the work stands alone or is part of a greater whole (e.g. a whole TV series or a single TV series episode).
The author is determined by the type of media you are citing.
|Media Type||Include as the Author|
|TV series||Executive producer(s)|
|TV series episode||Writer and director of the episode|
|Modern music album or song||Recording artist|
|Online streaming video||Person or group who uploaded the video|
Director, A. A. (Director). (Date). Title of work [Description of media]. Production Company. URL
Fleming, V. (Director), (1939). The wizard of Oz [Film]. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Producer, A.A. (Executive Producer). (Date range). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. URL if available
Simon, D., Colesberry, R.F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Productions, HBO.
Duffer, M., Duffer, R. (Writer & Director). (2016-present). Stranger things. [TV series]. 21 Laps Entertainment, Monkey Massacre, & Netflix.
Writer, A.A. (Writer), & Director, A.A. (Director). (Original Air Date). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description]. In A.A. Producer's (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production Company. URL if available
Pelecanos, G. (Writer), Chappelle, J. (Director). (2004, December 12). Middle ground (Season 3, Episode 11) [TV series episode]. In J. Chappelle's (Executive Producer), The Wire. Blown Productions, HBO.
Trefry, K. (Writer), Stanton, A. (Director). (2017 October 27). Chapter six: The spy (Season 2, Episode 6) [Series episode]. In M. Duffer and R. Duffer's (Executive Producers), Stranger things. 21 Laps Entertainment, Monkey Massacre, & Netflix.
When citing from the TED website directly, list the speaker as the author; when citing from YouTube, integrate the speakers' name into the tile of the talk and list the owner of the YouTube account as the author.
Bu, L. (2013 February). How books can open your mind [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/lisa_bu_how_books_can_open_your_mind?referrer=playlist-a_love_letter_to_libraries
TED. (2013 February). Lisa Bu: How books can open your mind [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/6ibCtsHgz3Y
The person or group who uploaded the video is listed as the author, even if they did not create the work.
Albert S. Cook Library. (2017 November 13). Using Google in a scholarly way: Advanced search. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/UQqNz0DL7IE
Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/deiEY5Yq1ql
Koshkin, M. (2017 October 5). Ode to joy [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/236904749
Presenter, A.A. (Date of presentation). Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL
Connaway, L.S., Hammond, J., Harvey, W., Kitzie, V., & Mikitish, S. (2017, March 23). Changing track: a future-focused ACRL research agenda [conference session]. Association College and Research Libraries Conference, Baltimore, MD, United States. https://www.oclc.org/research/themes/user-studies/acrl-agenda.html
Only include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval for the audience. For example, if the artist has only released music in one location, like their personal website. Otherwise, omit the URL in your reference citation.
Parton, D. (2014). Blue smoke [Album]. Dolly Records.
Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia
Childish Gambino. (2018) This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA
Abumrad, J. (Host). (2019-present). Dolly Parton's America [Audio podcast]. WNYC Studios. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/dolly-partons-america
Mars, R. (Host). (2019, March 19). Palaces for the people (No. 346) [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% Invisible. Radiotopia. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/palaces-for-the-people/
The same format is used for all types of artwork, including paintings, photographs, sculptures, and installations. Always include a description of the format in brackets after the title. If the work is untitled, include a brief description in square brackets in place of a title.
Artist, A.A., (Date). Title of work [Description]. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL
Leyster, J. (1630). Self-portrait [Painting]. National Gallery of Art, Washington.
Josephson, N. (2015). Papa Legba at the Amen Clinic [Mixed media sculpture]. American Visionary Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, United States. http://www.avam.org/exhibitions/great-mystery-show.shtml
Only use this format to cite, not reproduce, an infographic.
American Library Association. (2018). Top 11 challenged books of 2018 [Infographic]. Banned & Challenged Books Infographics. http://www.ala.org/advocacy/bbooks/frequentlychallengedbooks/statistics
This format is for use for images and photographs not associated with a museum. The source is the name of the site from which the photograph was retrieved. If there is no title available for the image, include a description in square brackets in place of the title. To cite an image found from a web search, like Google Images, you must cite the original source creator or owner.
El-Mofty, N. (2018 February 13). Yemen starving mothers [Photograph]. Associated Press. http://www.apimages.com/metadata/Index/Yemen-Starving-Mothers/8512e56dfbc64c85ba3d12d1c0fa0b0d/58/1
If you are citing slides from a course management site, like Blackboard, and you are writing for an audience with access, provide the URL.
Speight, M. (2018). [Lecture notes on Cook library website resources]. Albert S. Cook Library, Towson University. https://towson.libraries.edu/resourcepage
Swift, T. & West, K. (2018) Conflict resolution tips for musicians [PowerPoint slides]. Blackboard@TU. https://towson.blackboard.edu